On April 29, the European Space Agency announced that its premier infrared space observatory had run out of coolant and the mission had come to an end. Observing the cosmos in far-infrared wavelengths, the space telescope has given us some of the most striking views of cool nebulae, star forming regions, comets being pulverized around nearby stars, even asteroids buzzing around our own solar system. As we say goodbye to the historic mission, and astronomers continue to analyze the huge wealth of data Herschel has left us with, it's time to have a look back at some of the mission's most spectacular observations. In this picture, embryonic stars feed on the gas and dust clouds deep inside the Orion Nebula. This image combines far-infrared data by Herschel and mid-infrared data by NASA's Spitzer space telescope.
The Andromeda galaxy in infrared -- Herschel took this portrait of the famous spiral galaxy, picking out the fine detail from gas and dust running through its structure.
This three-color image of the W3 giant molecular cloud combines Herschel's 70 μm (blue), 160 μm (green) and 250 μm (red) filters. W3 is located about 6200 light-years away and is a hub of intense star formation. Filaments of gas and dust cocooning protostars (yellow dots) can be seen.
The star Betelgeuse is observed in infrared by Herschel as it rapidly approaches a "barrier" of interstellar gas. The bow shock of the star's stellar winds can easily be seen.
The star Kappa Coronae Borealis is captured in this infrared observation by Herschel. The star itself is blocked out whereas the ring of debris (likely from asteroid/comet impacts) glows bright.
The infrared emissions from dust produced by a huge number of cometary collisions surrounding the famous star Fomalhaut glows in bright blue in Herschel's eye. At least one exoplanet is known to orbit within this ring of dust.
Supernova remnant W44 is the focus of this observation created by combining data from ESA's Herschel and XMM-Newton space observatories.
Herschel picks out 600 newly forming stars inside the W40 nebula cradle of stars -- located 1,000 light-years away in the constellation Aquila.
Herschel could also study solar system objects with ease. In this observation, asteroid Apophis was captured during its approach to Earth on 5/6 January 2013. This image shows the asteroid in Herschel’s three PACS wavelengths: 70, 100 and 160 microns, respectively.
This striking image complemented Hubble's 23rd anniversary optical view of the Horsehead Nebula. Herschel's infrared observation of the Orion Molecular Cloud complex (including the Horsehead Nebula -- visible far right of image) provided a unique perspective on this astronomical favorite.
Dense filaments of gas in the IC5146 interstellar cloud can be seen in this Herschel observation. Stars are forming along these filaments.