Moving Ebola Patients to U.S. Involves Extreme Isolation

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When the first American Ebola patients arrive back home in the next few days, they probably won't be greeted with banners or TV cameras. Their route from Atlanta's Hartsfield Airport to the Emory University Medical Hospital will be a closely guarded secret to keep them from getting stuck in traffic or alerting the public.

Two humanitarian aid workers, Kent Brantly of Texas and Nancy Whitebol of North Carolina, were stricken by the disease while working in Liberia. They're being flown back in a private jet. It's not clear which of them will be taken to Emory, according to a hospital statement.

Emory has a special isolation unit, one of four in the country, to treat patients with serious infectious diseases. It is physically separated from other patient areas and is run in conjunction with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, the hospital said.

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From the hospital in Monrovia, to the Liberian airport and then during the 12-hour flight across the Atlantic, the patients will be in special chambers the whole time, according to Andrew Pekosz, associate professor of molecular microbiology and immunology at Johns Hopkins University who has worked on highly-contagious infectious diseases.

"This is not something being put together at the last minute," Pekosz said. "The CDC has been planning and putting protocol and facilities and equipment for exactly this kind of event for many years. There is a well-worked-out system from any part of the world where a patient can be identified, prepared and transported and delivered to the containment facility."

Here's how the medical team will protect themselves and others from the Ebola virus raging inside the patients:

- Clothes: Health-care workers wear impermeable polyvinyl chlorine (PVC) coveralls, a separate hood, vinyl boots and three pairs of gloves. A special high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered respirator powered by a rechargeable battery supplies air for breathing and cooling. Those filters remove particles down to .03 micrometers, including viruses like Ebola, according to CDC protocols.

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- Stretcher: The patients will be placed inside the Vickers aircraft transport isolator (VATI), designed for prolonged patient transportation and in-flight care. It uses negative air pressure and filters that exchange the air five times per hour. Medical workers will administer to the patients through special gloves built into the sides of the transparent chamber.

- Patient care: Since air travel is stressful and involves the effects of altitude and confinement, only patients that are expected to survive the flight would be moved. Doctors and nurses have to be watching for signs of respiratory failure and the presence of gas inside the body that could pose a problem at high altitude.

- Stopping the virus: Since there's no cure for Ebola, the most that doctors can do is try and help the body's own immune system fight it. They will also be trying to keep vital organs, like the liver and kidneys, functioning against the blood-borne virus, as well as removing excess fluid building up in the body, according to Pekosz.

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