Archaeologists have found some of the most curious canine burials ever unearthed in Egypt — two well preserved dogs buried in pots some 3,000 years ago.
Nicknamed Houdini and Chewie, the dog pots were discovered at Shunet ez Zebib, a large mud-brick structure located at Abydos — one of Egypt’s oldest standing royal monuments. The site was built around 2750 B.C and was dedicated to Khasekhemwy, a second dynasty king.
It is also known for the the thousands of ibis burials in jars that had been recovered in the dunes nearby, and for the interments of other animals, mostly raptors and canines.
“The site provided a very secure structure, with conveniently soft, sandy fill that was easy for quick burials within a sacred space,” Salima Ikram, professor of Egyptology at The American University in Cairo, wrote in a recently published Festschrift in honor of Dieter Kessler, a renowned scholar in the field of animal cults and Egyptian religion.
A leading expert on animal mummies, Ikram analyzed the results of a 2009 excavation led by David O’Connor and Matthew Adams, respectively director and field director of the North Abydos Project at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. Digging in the Shunet ez-Zebib’s southeast corner, the archaeologists unearthed several jars containing animal burials.
“Of the many jars that were recovered, only 13 have thus far been properly investigated. Of these, four were empty, three contained ibises, and five were filled with dogs,” Ikram said.
While three pots contained skeletonized remains of dogs, the last two housed Houdini and Chewie, two animals with their fur largely intact.
“Although it is common to find birds in pots, it is rare to find other animals buried in this way,” Ikram told Discovery News.
In particular, no canine burials in pots have been recorded in the many dog cemeteries scattered throughout Egypt.
“These jars were probably made and used for some sort of storage, and then re-used as coffins for the dogs. They are quite charming as the dogs are curled up in the pots,” Ikra said.
Houdini was found in a large two-handled pot, and was buried without any wrappings.
“We could not figure out how such a large animal was fit into the pot, so we named him after the magician, Houdini,” Ikram said.
The animal’s fur was brown to auburn-coppery, with portions darker and stiffer, as if they had been anointed by some substance such as oil or even resin.
“It seems as if he were put into the pot, hind limbs first, then adjusted and the rest of the body pushed in so that he was curled around,” Ikram said.
Although it is likely that Houdini is a dog, certain identification of the species is impossible as the animal could not be removed from the jar without compromising its integrity.
“The color of his almost auburn fur is unusual in a dog, as is the length of the hairs, which tend to be shorter in Egyptian dogs than the 3.5 inches found in the case of Houdini,” Ikram said.
“The only other viable identification would be a fox, but the fur’s color is not in keeping with the foxes found in Egypt today,” she added.
Not as well preserved as Houdini, Chewie was found in a large jar filled with the broken pieces of another large pot, which was used as a packing material to keep the dog in situ.
“Once the broken bits of pottery were removed, the dog contained within the pot was completely visible,” Ikram said.
The lack of evidence of any textile in the jar suggests Chewie was buried without bandages.
“The bones from his right foreleg were pushing through the skin and yellow fur,” Ikram added.
According to the researcher, both animals were mature, probably around five years of age.
“They were probably votive offerings unless they held the position of sacred animals — perhaps the pot burials are indicative of their being Sacred rather than just Votive,”Ikram said.
How the two animals were pushed into pots from which they cannot be extracted now remains a mystery.
“Without further examination and chemical testing it is not possible to understand the process by which these two animals were preserved,” Ikram said.
Among the possible embalming scenarios, the most likely treatment would include evisceration, dessication and defatting with natron salt.
Oiled and resined, the animals were then pushed into the jars.
“Sealed and buried in layers of protective sand, and cocooned in their jars, the animals’ bodies were well preserved so that they could serve as vehicles for their spirits, or kas, for eternity,” Ikram said.
Image: A large very furry creature, nick-named Houdini, was found curled up at the bottom of the jar with the nose pointing toward the hind legs. Credit: With kind permission of the NYU-IFA mission to Abydos.